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Politics

Constitutional Framework

Japan's constitution was promulgated in 1946 and came into force in 1947, superseding the Meiji Constitution of 1889. It differs from the earlier document in two fundamental ways: the principle of sovereignty and the stated aim of maintaining Japan as a peaceful and democratic country in perpetuity. The emperor, rather than being the embodiment of all sovereign authority (as he was previously), is the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people, while sovereign power rests with the people (whose fundamental human rights are explicitly guaranteed).

The government is now based on a constitution that stipulates the separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The emperor's major role now consists of such formalities as appointing the prime minister—who is first designated by the Diet (Kokkai)– and appointing the chief justice of the Supreme Court (Saiko Saibansho), convoking sessions of the Diet, promulgating laws and treaties, and awarding state honours—all with the advice and approval of the cabinet (naikaku).

Political Parties

Party politics in Japan was inaugurated during the Meiji period (1868–1912), although it subsequently was suppressed during the war years of the 1930s and ’40s. The freedom to organize political parties was guaranteed by the 1947 constitution. Any organization that supports a candidate for political office is required to be registered as a political party; thousands of parties, most of them of local or regional significance, have since been organized, merged, or dissolved.

Several parties rose to national prominence. Chief among these is the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), generally conservative and pro-business and the dominant force in government for most of the period since its founding in the mid-1950s. The moderately socialist New Kōmeitō (New Clean Government Party)—traditionally an important opposition party and (since 1999) part of a government coalition with the LDP—originally drew its main support from the Sōka Gakkai, although the religious organization subsequently renounced any formal ties with the party. The Social Democratic Party (SDP), originally called the Japan Socialist Party (JSP), long was the major opposition party, drawing much of its support from labour unions and inhabitants of the large cities. More recently, the main party in opposition has been the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), formed initially in the mid-1990s by the short-lived New Party Harbinger and gradually enlarged by absorbing other smaller parties. The Japanese Communist Party (JCP), small but influential for its size, has remained on the fringe of the opposition.

Adapted from Britannica.com – Government and Society – Japan.

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